scend,英语单词中的重音是怎么规定的?

英语词汇的重音位置是有其规律的scend。例如:有些双音节词汇做名词时重音往往落在首音节上;而做动词时,重音就落在第二音节上了。这些词汇常见的有:addict,accent,abstract,annex等。掌握好并读准单词的重音有一定的规律可循。为了便于记忆和学习,现将部分规则按重音位置和字母顺序作如下归纳,并从理论上进行简要分析。

scend,英语单词中的重音是怎么规定的?插图

一、归类部分

scend,英语单词中的重音是怎么规定的?插图1

1.重音落在末音节的字母组合

①以-ee结尾,读音为/!>?/的词汇:appellee chimpanzee conferee contestee decree drawee evacuee em-ployee goatee grandee guarantee indictee inductee

②以-act结尾,读音为/$kt/的词汇,多为动词:contact contract detract distract exact enact intact interact

③-air,-aire或-are结尾,读音为/#+/的词汇:affair concessionaire enclair millionaire aware prepare

④以-ade结尾,读音为/eid/的词汇:arcade brigade colonnade escalade escapade(exception:decade)

⑤以-ane结尾,读音为/ein/的词汇:inane insane profane humane

⑥以-ceive结尾,读音为/s!>?v/的动词:conceive deceive perceive receive

⑦以-duce结尾,读音为/dj(>?s/的词汇:conduce deduce induce introduce reduce reproduce subduce traduceseduce

⑧以-ease结尾,读音为/!>?s/或/!>?z/的词汇:appease decease decrease disease increase predecease release sub-lease surcease

⑨以-een结尾,读音为/!>?n/的名词:colleen canteen pretteen Salween shagreen thirteen spalpeenvelevteen yestreen

⑩以-eer结尾,读音为/i+/的名词:cannoneer compeer domineer engineer fronteer gadgeteer gazetterpamphleteer patrioteer

(11)以-ect结尾,读音为/ekt/的动词:affect bisect collect defect direct detect correct confect connectdisinfect eject elect

(12)以-ede结尾,读音为d/的动词:accede antecede concede impede intercede precede recede retrocedesecede supercede

(13)以-end结尾,读音为/end/的动词:attend amend commend comprehend contend defend depend extendintend represend subtend

(14)以-el结尾,读音为/el/的词汇:compel impel Nobel marcel propel rebel(v.)

(15)以-ert结尾,

的词汇:assert concert convert desert introvert subvert

(16)以-ese结尾,

的词汇:Chinese Japanese Napalese sudanese telegraphese vietnamese

(17)以-clude结尾,的动词:conclude exclude include occlude preclude seclude

(18)以-esce结尾,读音为/es/的词汇:coalesce deliquesce effloresce evanesce recrudesce

(19)以-ess结尾,读音为/es/的动词:compress confess depress express impress profess redress represssuppress transgress若不是动词,以-ess结尾,的词汇之重音位置不固定:’progress ‘congress pro’cess un’less

(20)以-est结尾,读音为/est/的动词:adjest congest contest digest infest protest suggest

(21)以-ette结尾,读音为/et/的词汇:cassette cigarette brunette coquette chemisette forssette frisettegazette grisette

(22)以-form结尾的动词:conform perform reform transform(但uniform是名词)

(23)以-ict结尾,读音为/ikt/的动词:afflict conflict constrict contradict inflict predict restric

(24)以-ide结尾,读音为/aid/的词汇:aside astride beside confide divide provide reside subside

(25)以-ign结尾,读音为/ain/的动词:assign condign design consign resign

(26)以-ire结尾,读音为/ai+/的动词:conspire esquire expire desire inquire inspire require respire

(27)以-lapse结尾,读音为/l$ps/的词汇:collapse prolapse relapse

(28)以-mit结尾,读音为/mit/的词汇:admit commit demit emit intermit omit permit pretermit remitsubmit transmit(若是名词,重音落在首音节,如:’limit ‘summit ‘vomit)

(29)以-ort结尾的动词:disport distort escort export import report retort support trans-port(若是名词,重音多落在首音节:escort export import bistort purport等。)

(30)以-ore结尾词汇:afore before deplore explore restore

(31)以-pose结尾,读音为/p+us/、/p+uz/的动词:depose decompose expose impose interpose oppose indispose predis-pose propose suppose

(32)以-scribe结尾,读音为/skraib/的词汇:conscribe describe escribe prescribe subscribe transcribe

(33)以-scend结尾,读音为/send/的词汇:ascend condescend descend transcend

(34)以-oon结尾的词汇:afternoon balloon buffoon cartoon cocoon decocoon dragoon festoongalloon octoroon pocaroon(exception:forenoon)

(35)以-que结尾,读音为/k/的词汇:antique boutique blottesque burlesque arabesque cacique critiquegrotesque Japanesque mystique

(36)以-r结尾,现在分词和过去分词均要双写r(-red,-ring):demur incur inter infer occur prefer recur refer transfer

(37)以-uct结尾,读音为/)kt/的词汇:conduct construct deduct instruct obstruct product

(38)以-ult结尾的词汇:consult exult insult occult midcult result

(39)以-ume结尾的词汇:assume consume perfume presume subsume

(40)以-use结尾的词汇:accuse confuse excuse perfuse refuse suffuse transfuse

(41)以-ure结尾,读音为/ju+/的词汇:accure impure immure insecure insure inure mature obscure per-dure procure secure(exceptions:’epicure ‘manicure)

2.重音落在倒数第二个音节的字母组合:

①以-ial结尾,读音为/+l/、/i+l/或/j+l/的词汇:/+l/:confidential decrial existential impartial inferential inffluentialinitial prejudicial sacrificial substantial/i+l/:authorial bimestrial colloquial gressorial material mercurialministerial motorial pictorial prefatorial tectorial visitorial/j+l/:antimonial bicentennial colonial

②以-ian结尾,读音为/+n/、/i+n/、/j+n/的词汇:/+n/:academician arithmetician acoustician electrician Eurasian Lin-guistician musician Persian politician practician/i+n/、/j+n/:Cantabrigian collegian Colombian historian rosarian salu-tatorian subclavian

③以-ia结尾,读音为/i+/的词汇:国名、地名:Australia Ethiopia Indonesia Malaysia Mauritania Roma-nia医学:abulia achromatopsia acidemia acrophobia aerophobia bilharziainsomnia其他:academia acedia cryptomeria razzia encyclopedia

④以-ic结尾,读音为/ik/偶或包括以-ics结尾的词汇:atomatic atmospheric autarkic autographic ballistic climatic cosmeticenteric epidemic

⑤以-ior结尾,读音为/i+/的词汇,形容词居多:inferior junior posterior prior senior superior ulterior

⑥以-it结尾,读音为/it/的词汇:cohabit demerit discredit discomfit decrepit deposit explicit dispiritdisinherit inspirit inherit inhabit inhibit reposit transit visit

⑦以-scence(n.)或-scent(adj)结尾:acescence acquiescence deliquescence convalescence evanescence obso-lescence reminiscence renascence decrescent marcescent pubescent re-crudescent quiescent resipiscent suffrutescent

⑧以-ion或-sion结尾:accusaion abolition confusion explosion decision impression persua-sion excitation suggestion invitation

3.重音落在倒数第三个音节的字母组合:

①以-fy结尾,读音为/fai/的动词:acidify identify intensify emulsify lapidify personify qualify modifyprettify simplify transmogrify

②以-ical结尾,读音为/ik+l/的词汇:academical chemical electrical political periodical encyclical teleologi-cal inimical theoretical technological

③以-icide结尾,读音为/isaid/的词汇:suicide aborticide acaricide foeticide fratricide herbicide infanticideliberticide uxoricide

④以-itude结尾的词汇:attitude decrepitude infinitude lassitude latitude platitude

⑤以-ity结尾,读音为/iti/的词汇:ability curiosity civility facility fragility opportunity personalitypossibility sensitivity simplicity speciality utility vanity whimsicality

⑥以-graph或-phy结尾的词汇:aerography bibliography biography calligraphy chirography geographylexicography photography planography telegraphy theosophy philosophy

⑦以-ology结尾的词汇:aerology bibliology bryology crytology ecology Egyptology lexicologytechnology pestology psychology testaceology teleology theology zoology

⑧以-otomy结尾的词汇:neurotomy tenotomy tracheotomy trichotomy

⑨以-ular结尾,读音为/jul+/的词汇:biangular binocular consular insular intercelluar ocular orbicularpopular particular secular regular triangular

4.词汇加了前缀后的重读位置①重读落在第一音节的词汇,加前缀后,重读位置不变:’dazzle—be’dazzle ‘operate—co’operate’force—en’force ‘logical—il’logical’literate—il’literate ‘constant—in’constant②重读落在第二音节的词汇,加前缀后,原重读位置不受影响,但前缀的字母组合作为一个音节可重读或次重读:pro’duce—’repro’duce’graduate—’post’graduate’national—’inter’nationalim’pressionism—’neo-imp’ressionism(the only exception:’finite—’infinie)

二、简析部分从语言学的角度来分析,英语的词重音(word stress)的位置是不固定的。英语与某些别的语言不同,例如:法语词汇的重音总是在词的末音节上;与法语相反的是捷克语,它的重音总是落在词的首音节上,而波兰语却独特一些,重音位置总是落在词汇的倒数第二个音节上,因此,这些语言的重音称为固定重音(fixed stress),而英语和俄语的重音则是自由重音(free stress)。英语本身吸收并借用了大量的外来语(loan words),以历史语言学或词源学(etymology)的观点来剖析,就不难解释为什么英语重音属于自由重音这一现象。例如:以-ion和-ic结尾的英语词汇重音往往落在倒数第二个音节上,而-ion和-ic结尾的字母组合则源于拉丁语。以-ee结尾的英语词汇重音总是落在末音节上,若追溯它的同源词(cognate),我们可以看到-ee这一后缀源于Middle English的-e,而-e又来源于Middle French的-é,若再追本溯源,乃是来自于Old French的-é。再考察以-ette后缀结尾的词汇,-ette后缀也是经历了从Old French到Middle French再到Middle English这一相似的演变过程,直至现在,仍然保留了法语的重音特征,与现代法语的词重音总是落在末音节这一规律完全吻合。

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